Fans of the England football team are used to their side being on the wrong end of a penalty shoot-out. Researchers at Purdue University in the U.S. have been looking into the psychology of kicking field goals - the equivalent in American football - and have come up with some interesting results. The researchers studied 23 athletes - who weren't American football players - kicking field goals from the middle of the pitch ten yards from the goal. The study found that people saw the goal as being smaller after an unsuccessful attempt. Those who kicked the ball wide of the posts saw the goal as being narrower and those who kicked the ball short of the posts (which are shaped like a capital H) saw them as being taller.
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