Nearly seven years after the event a survey of 11,000 New Yorkers has shown that the attacks of September 11, 2001 have had lasting psychological consequences. The survey found that Lower Manhattan residents had developed post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at three times the usual rate. The rate among residents (12.6%) matched that (12.4%) previously reported among rescue and recovery workers. Apart from injured residents, 38% of whom developed PTSD symptoms, the most affected groups were those who witnessed violent deaths and those who were caught up in the dust cloud as the twin towers collapsed; roughly 17% suffered from PTSD in each of these groups. Divorced people, women, black and Hispanic people and those with lower levels of education and income were all at a higher risk of PTSD.
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