Anger and hostility (the wilful refusal to accept reality and insistence that one's point of view is right regardless of the evidence) have often been linked to coronary heart disease (CHD). Researchers at University College London reviewed the literature on this subject including 25 studies of initially healthy people and 18 studies of people with heart disease. They found that anger and hostility increased the risk of CHD in healthy individuals by 19% and increased the risk of further CHD 'incidents' by 24% in people who already had the condition. The strength of the link was greater in men than women but once smoking, physical activity, weight and socioeconomic status were taken into account the link was no longer significant. So, there could still be a biological link between hostility and anger and CHD but the link could also be because anger and hostility are more likely to make people behave in unhealthy ways.
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