Mindfulness has been defined as "paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, and non-judgmentally." There has been a growing interest in mindfulness over the last few years and it has been shown to be effective in pain management, improving the function of the immune system, preventing relapses in depression, reducing anxiety and decreasing stress. Researchers from the American University in Washington, D.C. looked into the effectiveness of transcendental meditation (TM) on people's mindfulness. They studied 287 students, some of whom were enrolled on a transcendental meditation course while others were placed on a waiting list. The results showed that those students who had taken the TM course showed a greater increase in mindfulness than those on the waiting list. The study also found a 'self-selection' effect whereby those students who were most interested in taking up meditation were already more mindful than their peers.
Tanner, Melissa A. ... [et al] - The effects of the transcendental meditation program on mindfulness Journal of Clinical Psychology June 2009, 65(6), 574-589