Patients in psychiatric intensive care units (PICUs) often have to be placed in seclusion or restraint for their own or others' protection. U.K. researchers from NHS services in Suffolk, Hampshire and Oxford studied the patterns of seclusion and restraint in 332 patients admitted to 7 PICUs in England. They found that four of the units used seclusion on a total of 16% of their patients. All of the units used restraint on 28% of the admitted patients. Using seclusion did not affect the length of time patients were being restrained for or how many patients were restrained. The use of seclusion and restraint was significantly associated with patient violence and property damage. Restraint was also associated with higher levels of psychological disturbance and a younger patient age.
Dye, Stephen, Brown, Steve and Chhina, Navjyoat - Seclusion and restraint usage in seven English psychiatric intensive care units (PICUs) Journal of Psychiatric Intensive Care December 2009, 5(2), 69-79