People with heart disease who bottle up their anger are at nearly three times the risk of having a heart attack or dying over the next 5-10 years. Researchers from Tilburg University in the Netherlands looked into the influence of type D personality in a study of 644 patients who were followed for an average of about six years. Type D personalities are prone to suffer from anger and other negative emotions and often bottle their anger up because they find it difficult to express themselves in social situations. There was a significant relationship between suppressed anger and the risk of heart attack or death even after the researchers adjusted for factors like blood pressure and heart disease severity. Nearly 20% of people with a type D personality had high levels of suppressed anger compared to only 4% of the rest of the sample. Having a type D personality quadrupled the risk of having a heart attack or dying during the course of the study.
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