People with a type D personality have a tendency towards negative affectivity - e.g. worry, irritability and gloom - and social inhibition, showing reticence and a lack of self-assurance. They experience more negative emotions over time but tend not to share them with others because of a fear of rejection or disapproval. Researchers from Tilburg University in the Netherlands studied 184 people with peripheral arterial disease. This is caused by plaque building up in the arteries which supply blood to the arms and legs and can lead to an increased risk of stroke, heart attack and death. Participants in the study filled in a personality questionnaire at the start and were monitored over the next four years. After adjusting for age, sex, diabetes and kidney disease the participants with a type D personality had an increased risk of death.
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