A survey of 200 Kuwaiti servicemen looked into the links between exposure to trauma during the first Gulf war, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), self-esteem and locus of control (people's feelings that the causes of events are due to internal or external factors). The servicemen were made up of four equal groups: those who had retired before the invasion, those who had served but not in the front line, those who had served in battle and those who had been taken captive as a prisoner of war (PoW). 31.5% of the whole sample were found to be suffering from PTSD with the rate significantly higher (48%) among the PoWs. Avoidance symptoms were the most pronounced and self-esteem was significantly lower among the PoWs and participants with PTSD. An external locus of control was associated with PTSD, anxiety and depression. Self-esteem was linked to PTSD scores while locus of control was linked to anxiety; people with an external locus of control were more prone to be anxious.
Fawziyah, A. Al-Turkait and Ohaeri, Jude U. - Prevalence and correlates of post-traumatic stress disorder among Kuwaiti military men according to level of involvement in the first Gulf war Depression and Anxiety 25(11), 932-941